挖比特币让中国碳排放目标实现不了?|卫报

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经过各方消息的持续多年轰炸,许多人已经对加密货币及其背后的区块链原理略知一二。然而近日发表在《自然》期刊上的一项新研究却表明,为全球近 80% 加密货币交易提供支撑的加密货币挖矿设施,正在对我国 2030 年的碳减排目标构成巨大的挑战。据悉,以比特币为代表的加密货币,需要通过繁重的电力计算来支撑区块链网络的运转。

在加密货币挖矿“产业链”中,底层“矿工”们通过高性能计算来验证区块链上的交易并货币虚拟货币作为奖励。但这一生态的最大问题,就是对能源的极度消耗。

研究指出,国内约有 30% 的比特币矿机是由煤电驱动的。虽然其余部分能够使用可再生能源,但考虑到燃煤电厂的庞大规模,加密货币挖矿热潮或严重拖累“2030 年碳达峰 / 2060 年碳中和”目标的实现。

今天,我们跟随《卫报》的报道,一起了解一下此事:

China’s electricity-hungry bitcoin mines that power nearly 80% of the global trade in cryptocurrencies risk undercutting the country’s climate goals, a study in the journal Nature has said.

《自然》杂志的一项研究称,中国耗电量巨大的比特币矿为全球近80%的加密货币交易提供动力,这可能会削弱中国的气候目标。

Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies rely on “blockchain” technology, which is a shared database of transactions, with entries that must be confirmed and encrypted. The network is secured by individuals called “miners” who use high-powered computers to verify transactions, with bitcoins offered as a reward. Those computers consume enormous amounts of electricity.

比特币和其他加密货币依赖于“区块链”技术,这是一个交易的共享数据库,其中的条目必须经过确认和加密。该网络被名为“矿工”的个人利用,他们使用高性能计算机来验证交易,并获得比特币作为奖励。而这些计算机耗电量巨大。

About 40% of China’s bitcoin mines are powered with coal, while the rest use renewables, the study said. However, the coal plants are so large they could end up undermining Beijing’s pledge to peak carbon emissions before 2030 and become carbon neutral by 2060, it warned.

该研究称,中国约40%的比特币矿使用煤炭发电,其余的则使用可再生能源发电。然而,该研究警告称,这些燃煤发电厂规模如此之大,最终可能会破坏中国关于在2030年前达到碳排放峰值、并在2060年前实现碳中和的承诺。

The Nature study on Tuesday found that unchecked, China’s bitcoin mines will generate 130.5m metric tons of carbon emissions by 2024 – close to the annual greenhouse gas emissions of Italy or oil-rich Saudi Arabia.

《自然》杂志周二的研究发现,如果不加以控制,到2024年,中国的比特币矿将产生1.305亿砘碳排放——接近意大利或盛产石油的沙特阿拉伯的年度温室气体排放。

Chinese companies with access to cheap electricity and hardware handled 78.89% of global bitcoin blockchain operations as of April 2020, the study said. This involves minting new coins and keeping track of cryptocurrency transactions.

该研究称,截至20204月,拥有廉价电力和硬件的中国企业处理了全球比特币区块链业务的78.89%。这包括铸造新币和跟踪加密货币交易。

第一,学习crypto- /kr?pt??/的用法。这个词作前缀,表示secret or hidden,秘密的、隐秘的例:a crypto-Communist 地下共产党员。而这里cryptocurrency就是加密货币。其实,crypt本义是教堂地下室,它作为词根也带有秘密的含义,比如后文出现的encrypt,表示把(尤指计算机中的资料)加密

第二,学习unchecked /??n?t?ekt?/的用法。这个词作形容词,表示if something bad or harmful goes unchecked, it is not controlled or stopped and develops into something worse,(坏事)未受抑制的、未受制止的,常用搭配为continue/grow/go unchecked,例:We cannot allow such behaviour to continue unchecked. 我们不能允许这样的行为继续下去而不加制止。这里是形容词作伴随/条件状语。

第三,学习mint的用法这是一个多义词,这里是及物动词,表示to make a coin,铸造(硬币)例:Only 2,000 of the special commemorative coins are being minted. 这种特别纪念币只有2000枚在铸造中。其作名词,可表示“薄荷”或者“铸币厂”;其作形容词,in mint condition表示looking new and in perfect condition崭新的、完好无损的


Co-author Wang Shouyang from the Chinese Academy of Sciences said: “The intensive bitcoin blockchain operation in China can quickly grow as a threat that could potentially undermine the emission reduction effort.”

来自中国科学院的合著者王守阳说:“中国密集的比特币区块链开采活动可能会迅速增长,成为可能破坏减排努力的潜在威胁。”

The government should focus on upgrading the power grid to ensure a stable supply from renewable sources, Wang said. “Since energy prices in clean-energy regions of China are lower than that in coal-powered regions … miners would then have more incentives to move to regions with clean energy.”

王守阳表示,政府应该把重点放在升级电网上,以确保可再生能源的稳定供应。“由于中国清洁能源地区的能源价格低于燃煤地区……矿工们将有更多的动力转移到清洁能源地区。”

This year the crypto-mining industry is expected to use 0.6% of the world’s total electricity production, or more than the annual use of Norway, according to Cambridge University’s Bitcoin Electricity Consumption Index.

据剑桥大学(Cambridge University)的比特币用电指数(Bitcoin Electricity Consumption Index)显示,今年加密挖矿业的用电量预计将占全球总发电量的0.6%,或超过挪威的年用电量。

The price of a bitcoin has surged fivefold in the past year, reaching a record high of over $61,000 in March, and is now hovering just below the $60,000 mark.

在过去的一年里,比特币的价格飙升了5倍,在3月份达到了超过6.1万美元的历史高位,目前在6万美元的关口附近徘徊。

Given the profits available, Wang said imposing carbon taxes was not enough to deter miners.

王守阳表示,考虑到可获得的利润,征收碳税不足以阻止矿工。

China banned trading in cryptocurrencies in 2019 to prevent money laundering, but mining is permitted.

中国在2019年禁止加密货币交易,以防止洗钱,但挖矿本身是被允许的。

第一,了解power grid的用法。grid这个词作名词,表示金属格栅electrical grid也称作electric grid或者power grid,指的是an interconnected network for delivering electricity from producers to consumers. It consists of generating stations that produce electric power, electrical substations for stepping electrical voltage up for transmission, or down for distribution, high voltage transmission lines that carry power from distant sources to demand-centers and distribution lines that connect individual customers也就是我们说的电网,国家电网公司就是STATE GRID Corporation of China

第二,学习record的用法。这个词虽然是名词,但其可以作定语,修饰另外一个名词,常见搭配包括:a record number/level/time etc例:Pollution in the lake has reached record levels. 湖水污染达到了空前的程度。a record high/low,例:The stock market reached a record high on August 21. 821日股市创出新高。

第三,deter /d??t??/的用法。这个词作及物动词,表示to stop someone from doing something, by making them realize it will be difficult or have bad results,威慑住、吓住、使却步常用搭配为deter somebody from (doing) something,例:The security camera was installed to deter people from stealing. 安装监控摄像机来防止偷窃。


Coal-rich regions are now pushing out bitcoin miners as they struggle to curb emissions. Last month, Inner Mongolia announced plans to end the power-hungry practice of cryptocurrency mining by the end of April after the region failed to meet annual energy consumption targets.

煤炭资源丰富的地区正在排挤比特币矿工,因为这些地区正在控制排放。上个月,内蒙古在未能完成年度能源消耗目标后,宣布在4月底前结束耗电量大的加密货币挖矿行为。

The region accounted for 8% of the computing power needed to run the global blockchain – the set of online ledgers that record bitcoin transactions. That is more than the amount of computing power dedicated to blockchain in the US.

内蒙古占全球区块链——这是一套位于互联网上用于记录比特币交易的账本——运行所需算力的8%。这高于美国专门用于区块链的算力。

Nasdaq-listed Bitmain, which operates one of the biggest cryptocurrency mining pools in the world, said it was shifting operations in Inner Mongolia to areas with more hydropower such as Yunnan.

在纳斯达克上市的比特大陆经营着世界上最大的加密货币挖矿池之一,该公司表示,正在将内蒙古的业务转移到云南等水电资源较多的地区。

第一,学习power-hungry/news-hungry etc的用法。这个词组表示wanting power, news etc very much渴求权力/消息等的,例:a power-hungry politician 渴求权力的政客。当然,这里的power指的不是权力,而是电力。

第二,学习dedicate的熟词僻义。这个词作及物动词,表示to use a place, time, money etc only for a particular purpose……专用于,常用搭配为dedicate something to/for something,例:The company dedicated $50,000 for the study. 该公司为此研究拨出专款5万美金。

外刊文章来源,2021年4月7日,卫报,China’s vast bitcoin mining empire risks derailing its climate targets, says study

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