经济学人:比特币涨了5倍……

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本篇推送笔记原文选自《经济学人》,全文完整笔记在外刊群里分享>>跟着Zoe每日读一篇经济学人(2021年3月15日起) 这里选取其中一段与大家分享。


ANYONE WHO bought bitcoin a year ago must feel vindicated—and rich. The price of the cryptocurrency crossed $50,000 for the first time on February 16th, a five-fold increase over the past year. Wall Street grandees including BlackRock, Bank of New York Mellon and Morgan Stanley are mulling holding some for clients. Last month Tesla, an electric-car maker, said it had bought $1.5bn-worth of bitcoin and would accept it as payment for its cars.

一年前买了比特币的人一定都觉得自己扬眉吐气,而且很富有。这种加密货币的价格在216日首次突破五万美元,过去一年里涨了五倍。包括贝莱德(Blackrock)、纽约梅隆银行(Bank of New York Mellon)和摩根士丹利在内的华尔街巨头正在考虑为客户持仓。上月,电动汽车制造商特斯拉表示已购买了价值15亿美元的比特币,并将接受用比特币购买它的汽车。



比特币2020年涨了5倍。很多华尔街巨头准备给他们的客户买点,特斯拉甚至表示能接受客户用比特币支付。

 

生词详解

Vindicate /?v?nd??ke?t/是个比较正式的用法: V-T If a person or their decisions, actions, or ideas are vindicated, they are proved to be correct, after people have said that they were wrong. 证明是正确的,比如:

The director said he had been vindicated by the experts’ report.主任说专家们的报告证明他是正确的。

 

Cryptocurrency: 加密货币

Crypt(o)作为词根是“隐秘、隐”的意思;

扩展一下:

Crypt + ic (形容词后缀,…的)=cryptic : 隐蔽的,秘密的;

Crypt +onym(名)=cryptonym :匿名;

Crypto + graph(名词后缀:写、文字)=cryptograph: 密码,暗号、密码文;

在此基础上再进行拓展:

Cryptograph + y (…) =cryptography: 密码学;

Cryptograph + er (…)=cryptographer: 密码员;

 

Grandee: N-COUNT In the past, a grandee was a Spanish prince of the highest rank. 旧时西班牙的大公爵

这里搭配Wall Street,再结合下面的举例(BlackRock, Bank of New York Mellon and Morgan Stanley)处理为“巨头”


这里复习一下“巨头”词条】

Juggernaut /?d??ɡ?rn??t/( formal ) a large and powerful force or institution that cannot be controlled 不可抗拒的强大力量;无法控制的强大机构,比如:

a bureaucratic juggernaut 庞大的官僚机构

The group became a sales juggernaut in the commodity options business.这个集团已经成为一个商品期权交易的销售巨头。


giant: a very large successful company巨头,大公司,比如:

tech giant 科技巨头

ride-hailing giant 叫车巨头

clothing giant 服装巨头

search giant 搜索引擎巨头

on-demand mobility giant定制出行巨头 

social-media and gaming giant 社交媒体和游戏巨头

从该词释义以及以上例子可以得出,giant“巨头”时,是指“企业”,不是指个人


giant用来指代“人”时,则指“someone who is very good at doing something伟人,卓越人物”,比如:

Miles Davis, truly one of the giants of jazz 迈尔斯·戴维斯,一位真正的爵士乐大师

另外, giant的形容词用法,也可以组合成“巨头”的意思:

extremely big, and much bigger than other things of the same type巨大的,特大的

a giant electronics company 一家电子产品巨头

a giant tortoise 巨龟


Behemoth [b?‘him?θ][formal ] something that is very large庞然大物,比如:

a trade behemoth that shipped abroad 800 billion worth of goods向国外运输了价值8,000亿美元货物的贸易巨头


monster的形容词用法,也可以构成“巨头”的意思:Monster means extremely and surprisingly large. 庞大的;


titan: a person or thing of very great strength, intellect, or importance.巨头;


Mighty: large and impressive 巨大的;非凡的,比如:

the mighty Mississippi river 浩荡的密西西比河

这里拿mighty companies搭配,指“规模巨大的公司”,即“巨头企业”,


Megacorporation Mega-是个前缀,表示:very large or great 巨大的;了不起的,比如megastore大商场


Colossus /k??l?s?s/ : [ sing. ] ( formal ) a person or thing that is extremely important or large in size 巨人;巨物


monolith /?m?n?l?θ/N-COUNT If you refer to an organization or system as a monolith, you are critical of it because it is very large and very slow to change, and it does not seem to have different parts with different characters. 庞大而僵化的组织; 单一庞大的体系

Treating big tech as a monopolistic monolith does not make sense when some markets are competitive.当有些市场具有竞争性时,把科技巨头视为垄断巨头是没有道理的。


 


Mull: V-T If you mull something, you think about it for a long time before deciding what to do. 斟酌,比如:

Last month, a federal grand jury began mulling evidence in the case.上个月,一个联邦大陪审团开始仔细斟酌该案的证据。


往期外刊群中我们碰到过近义表达:Contemplate[t] to think about whether you should do sth, or how you should do sth考虑;思量;思忖,可以理解为“权衡”,

But until now no big company had contemplated direct listing as an alternative.不过到目前为止,还没有哪家大公司考虑过直接上市。


Weigh[t] to consider sth carefully before making a decision认真考虑;权衡;斟酌,比如:

On sensitive subjects my words have to be weighed carefully.在一些敏感性议题上,我必须斟字酌句。


Deliberate[i][t] to think very carefully about sth, usually before making a decision仔细考虑;深思熟虑;反复思考,比如:

The jury deliberated for five days before finding him guilty.陪审团认真讨论了五天才裁定他有罪。

They deliberated (on) whether to continue with the talks.他们仔细考虑了是否继续谈判的问题。


chew on(chew on something) to think about something carefully for a long time, before making a decision about it 思考,研究,比如:

The investors have several economic reports to chew on.投资者们还有数个经济报告要研究。

That gives the incoming Biden administration, which has promised to take “aggressive trade-enforcement actions” against currency manipulators, lots to chew on.这给了刚上台的拜登政府很多值得咀嚼之处,他们已经承诺要对货币操纵国采取“激进的贸易执法行动”。

 

易错点分析:英文倍数表达


以下内容出自CATTI阅卷老师陈炳发


倍数增加问题

increased 3 times/folds”increased by 3 times”increase to 3 times”以及increase by a factor of 3”,均应译为“增加到3”,或者“增加2”,而不应译为“增加3”。


A is 3 times as great(longmuch)as B”A is 3 times greater (longer more)than B”A is 3 times the size (length amount)of B”,均应译为;“A的大小(长度,数量,……)B3”,或者“AB(长,多,……)2”,而不应译为“AB(长,多,……)3”。


倍数减少问题。

decrease 3 times/folds ”;“decrease by 3 times”;“decrease by a factor of 3”均应译为“减少到1/3”,或者“减少2/3”


A is 3 times as small (lightslow)as B” A is 3 times smaller (lighter slower) than B”,均应译为A的大小(重量,速度,……)B1/3”,或者AB(轻,慢,……)2/3”,而不应译为AB(轻,慢,……)3”。需要注意的是,增加用倍数表示,减少用分数表示。


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